Mongolian tour guide
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  • Writer's pictureEnza Tours LLC


Updated: Feb 27

Mongolian historical map changes

Mongolia has experienced various changes to its historical borders over the centuries. Here are some significant shifts in Mongolian history:

1. Mongol Empire (1206-1368): Under the leadership of Genghis Khan and his successors, the Mongol Empire emerged as a vast empire, stretching from Eastern Europe to Asia. It encompassed regions such as China, Central Asia, the Middle East, and parts of Eastern Europe.

2. Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368): The Mongol Empire later transformed into the Yuan Dynasty, with Mongolia serving as the empire's heartland. The Yuan Dynasty ruled over China, Mongolia, and portions of neighboring territories.

3. Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty (1368-1911): The Mongolian territories came under Ming Dynasty rule after the collapse of the Yuan Dynasty. During the Qing Dynasty, Mongolia was incorporated as part of the Qing Empire, which extended its control over Mongolia, China, and some parts of Central Asia.

4. Independence and Republic of Mongolia (1911-1924): In 1911, Mongolia declared independence from the Qing Dynasty, establishing the Bogd Khanate of Mongolia. However, it faced external pressures and conflicts until the establishment of the Mongolian People's Republic in 1924.

5. Mongolian People's Republic (1924-1992): The Mongolian People's Republic was established as a socialist state under Soviet influence. During this period, Mongolia remained a separate entity from China, maintaining its own political and territorial identity.

6. Modern Mongolia: Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Mongolia transitioned to a democratic system. Today, Mongolia is an independent nation with its recognized borders, encompassing the region of Outer Mongolia.

It's important to note that the historical map of Mongolia has seen several changes and complex political dynamics. The borders and territories mentioned above provide a general overview of major historical periods but may not encompass all nuances or minor adjustments throughout history.

Turks and Mongols history: 6th - 13th century

Mongolian Army
Historical illustration of the Mongol Army

The high plateau of Mongolia, east of the Altai mountains, is rivalled only by Scandinavia as a region from which successive waves of tribesmen have emerged to prey upon more sedentary neighbours. Mongolia is the original homeland of both Turks and Mongols, two groups much intermingled in history and loosely related in their languages. Mongolia is an ideal starting point for the movement of nomadic tribes in search of new pastures, and for sudden excursions of a more predatory nature. It lies at the end of an entire range of open grasslands, the steppes, which reach all the way to Europe. Riders can move fast along the prairies. South of this nomadic highway lives wealthy settled communities.